A Neglected Aspect of War Author: American political and military strategists continue to demonstrate their failure to adequately embrace the aspects of culture as a relevant factor in developing and planning military operations. Although the Marine Corps has made some efforts towards applying the significance of culture to military operations, a greater requirement must be placed upon the educational system to provide the needed emphasis on the cultural aspects of war.
Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation-states on the European territory of the Ottoman Empire during the second half of the 19th century.
Serbia had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War, —while Greece acquired Thessaly in although it lost a small area back to the Ottoman Empire in and Bulgaria an autonomous principality since incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia All three countries, as well as Montenegro, sought additional territories within the large Ottoman-ruled region known as Rumeliacomprising Eastern Rumelia, AlbaniaMacedonia, and Thrace.
Policies of the Great Powers[ edit ] Throughout the 19th century, the Great Powers shared different aims over the " Eastern Question " and the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Russia wanted access to the "warm waters" of the Mediterranean from the Black Sea; it pursued a pan-Slavic foreign policy and therefore supported Bulgaria and Serbia.
Britain wished to deny Russia access to the "warm waters" and supported the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, although it also supported a limited expansion of Greece as a backup plan in case integrity of the Empire was no longer possible.
Habsburg -ruled Austria-Hungary wished for a continuation of the existence of the Ottoman Empire, since both were troubled multinational entities and thus the collapse of the one might weaken the other. The Habsburgs also saw a strong Ottoman presence in the area as a counterweight to the Serbian nationalistic call to their own Serb subjects in BosniaVojvodina and other parts of the empire.
Italyprimary aim at the time seems to have been the denial of access to the Adriatic Sea to another major sea power. The German Empirein turn, under the " Drang nach Osten " policy, aspired to turn the Ottoman Empire into its own de facto colony, and thus supported its integrity.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, Bulgaria and Greece contended for Ottoman Macedonia and Thrace.
Ethnic Greeks sought the forced "Hellenization" of ethnic Bulgars, who sought "Bulgarization" of Greeks Rise of nationalism. Both nations sent armed irregulars into Ottoman territory to protect and assist their ethnic kindred.
Fromthere was low intensity warfare in Macedonia between the Greek and Bulgarian bands and the Ottoman army the Struggle for Macedonia. After the Young Turk revolution of Julythe situation changed drastically.
Young Turk Revolution[ edit ] Main article: When the revolt broke out, it was supported by intellectuals, the army, and almost all the ethnic minorities of the Empire, and forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to re-adopt the long defunct Ottoman constitution of and parliament.
Hopes were raised among the Balkan ethnicities of reforms and autonomy, and elections were held to form a representative, multi-ethnic, Ottoman parliament. At the same time, in OctoberAustria-Hungary seized the opportunity of the Ottoman political upheaval to annex the de jure Ottoman province of Bosnia and Herzegovinawhich it had occupied since see Bosnian Crisis.
Bulgaria declared independence as it had done inbut this time the independence was internationally recognised. The Greeks of the autonomous Cretan State proclaimed unification with Greece, though the opposition of the Great Powers prevented the latter action from taking practical effect.
It has large influence in the consequent world order. In MarchSerbia was forced to accept the annexation and restrain anti-Habsburg agitation by Serbian nationalists. Instead, the Serbian government PM: The Military League found itself unable to create a new political system, until the League summoned the Cretan politician Eleutherios Venizelos to Athens as its political adviser.
Venizelos persuaded king George I to revise the constitution and asked the League to disband in favor of a National Assembly. In Marchthe Military League dissolved itself. The Balkan countries saw this as an opportunity to attack the Ottoman Empire and fulfill their desires of expansion.
With the initial encouragement of Russian agents, a series of agreements was concluded between Serbia and Bulgaria in March Military victory against the Ottoman Empire would not be possible while it could bring reinforcements from Asia.
The condition of the Ottoman railways of the time was not advanced, so most reinforcements would have to come by sea through the Aegean Sea.
Greece was the only Balkan country with a navy powerful enough to deny use of the Aegean to the Ottoman Empire, thus a treaty between Greece and Bulgaria became necessary; it was signed in May Montenegro concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria later that year.
Bulgaria signed treaties with Serbia to divide the territory of northern Macedonia. This alliance between Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro became known as the Balkan League; its existence was undesirable for all the Great Powers.
The League was loose at best, though secret liaison officers were exchanged between the Greek and the Serbian army after the war began.
Greece delayed the start of the war several times in the summer ofto better prepare her navy, but Montenegro declared war on 8 October 25 September O. Following an ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire, the remaining members of the alliance entered the conflict on 17 October.
First Balkan War[ edit ] Main article: First Balkan War Territorial changes as a result of the First Balkan war, as of April showing the prewar agreed line of expansion between Serbia and Bulgaria The apple of discord: Despite their alliance, Greco-Bulgarian antagonism over the city and Macedonia in general did not abate.
The three Slavic allies Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro had laid out extensive plans to coordinate their war efforts, in continuation of their secret prewar settlements and under close Russian supervision Greece was not included.
Its population of about 26 million people provided a massive pool of manpower, but three quarters of the population and nearly all of the Muslim component lived in the Asian part of the Empire.
Reinforcements had to come from Asia mainly by sea, which depended on the result of battles between the Turkish and Greek navies in the Aegean. Most of their available forces were allocated to these fronts.The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between and Following a number of violent incidents in early , the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April In order to grasp the dynamic that drives the global civil war, we first have to see the relation between the icy wind of financial abstraction and the reaction of the aggressive body of .
Conflicts such as Israel’s Six-Day War () and the first Gulf War () exemplified western militar- Balkans, academics and military professionals alike sought to explain how Many observers concluded that the nature of war had changed and that western armed forces had yet to make the nec-essary adaptations to the new paradigm.
Faith Communities as Potential Agents for Peace Building in the Balkans It is generally agreed that the Balkan conflicts were not religious in nature; religious differences a detailed understanding of both secular and faith-based civil society, and external support and.
A violent internal conflict is generally called a civil war or armed conflict when casualties and destruction are substantial, the conflict has a certain duration, the protagonists are organized, and military operations are used to achieve political goals.
Ethnic conflict, therefore, is a form of conflict in which there is an ethnic dimension. Conflicts today range across a spectrum that encompasses not only conventional war between large-scaled armed forces, but also includes unconventional warfare between smaller groups at lower-intensity levels based on political, socio-economical, religious, or resource issues.