Enjoy the Famous Daily The ingredients of civilization Many different elements must come together before a human community develops to the level of sophistication commonly referred to as civilization. The first is the existence of settlements classifiable as towns or cities. This requires food production to be efficient enough for a large minority of the community to be engaged in more specialized activities - such as the creation of imposing buildings or works of art, the practice of skilled warfare, and above all the administration of a centralized bureaucracy capable of running the machinery of state. Civilization requires at least a rudimentary civil service.
Factors in the development of cultures The Concept of Civilization Etymologically, the term civilization comes from the Latin civis, citizen, vocabulary which alludes to and designates an inhabitant of a city, in contrast to the inhabitants of the fields, denominated rural. But in the Roman right, the name citizen is broadened in the year AD to all the inhabitants of the Empire, including the provinces, without distinguishing between those in the country and those in the city.
In spite of this legal definition, the inhabitants of the city and those of the country are differentiated by their customs, level of education, virtues, etc.
Slaves and free men without the status of a citizen are excluded from the The development of a civilization of citizenship. Those who received the right of citizenship were called citizens and enjoyed public rights and those of the civil law.
Vatican city The existence of the citizen supposes, certainly, that of the city, civitas in Latin. The civilitas, equivalent to urbanites, is interpreted as the way of being typical of the city and its inhabitants, in accordance with its norms.
For a very long time, from the 17th Century, the adjective civilized was synonymous with refined, informed, educated. In this sense, the French and English adjectives poli and polished are used, respectively, derived in their turn from the Greek polis city.
The terms civility and courtesy have a meaning similar to sociability or urbanity. The French were the first in employing the term civilization, derived from the verb civilize civileserin the sense of material, intellectual or social progress, etc.
Condorcet, inalludes to civilization as the remedy for war, slavery and misery. These and other authors speak of civilization as the furthest opposite of barbarity, a concept which acquires great esteem all the way up to the end of the 18th Century.
Marx and Engels, in their Manifesto of the Communist Party understand civilization as means of subsistence. It is not possible to pretend to give one definition of civilization which brings in all the common elements contained in the distinct concepts of civilization.
Kroeber and Clyde Klukhohn enumerate definitions. Philip Bagby, who has dedicated himself to cultural anthropology, proposes reserving the term civilization for that related to cities, as opposed to culture as typical of non-urbanized country, such that civilization comes to be a superior culture.
It is very important to take this opinion into account because it has been said before about the etymological meaning. Louis XIV In general terms civilization can be understood, in a broad sense, as the extensive manifestation of human activity, considered collectively.
Weber, civilization is equivalent to material culture or the set of material and external means that man uses.
Most authors who have studied the phenomenon of civilization share this state of mind, which tends to use the term culture to refer to the most intimate and vital realizations of human progress and the term civilization to refer to the most technical and exterior aspects.
It is also common to consider civilization as the ultimate phase of the cultural process, in such a way that it always ends in civilization. In this way, every cultural process leads to a culture, and by relation between cultures, a civilization is born.
Such is the case of Western civilization, result of the cultures of the western peoples, its most external and technical manifestation.
Even now, it is not possible to speak of a universal civilization, because on a global scale, all the cultures of all the peoples of the East and the West have not reached this result.
But the connection and dependence of civilizations is continually larger, because of the influence of means of communication, by more intensive contact on the individual level, etc. The Concept of Culture The sense which is normally given to the word culture today retains very little relation to its etymology.
Coming from the Latin verb colere to cultivatein the Roman world the word culture was used for farming work, that is to say, equivalent to the current English term for agriculture. By the similarity between the care which had to be taken with the land plowing, reaping, sowing, etc.
And in the same way that one speaks of the cultivation of the mental faculties, it is said also of the cultivation of the spirit, of religious culture, etc. In this sense, and in contrast to the more collective term civilization, culture refers more directly and properly to the individual.
Christopher Dawson has elaborated a more broad and distinct concept, but also refering to the individual, on observing that the biological and intellectual elements cooperate in the formation of culture.
This author names the same factors which intervene in culture: To these factors, we should add psychology, typical of human species, which frees man from blind dependence on the environment.Dr Edward Crowther Chair History, Anthropology, Philosophy, Political Science, Spanish Email: [email protected] Phone: () McDaniel Hall Suite Development of Civilization Civilizations expand through trade, conflict, and exploration.
Usually, all three elements must be present for a civilization to grow and remain stable for a long period of time. Start studying Development of Civilization.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The development of the Teotihuacano civilization was made possible in part by the rich agricultural land surrounding the city. As land was cultivate d, fewer farmers could supply more food staple s, such as corn and beans, to more people.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and .
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