Scientific reasoning and critical thinking in social studies

Contact Critical Thinking Correlation Studies Critical thinking isn't just an academic skill, it's a skill used by highly successful business leaders every day to solve problems, ask questions, and make decisions. The research behind critical thinking is rock solid. Study results, reported in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, were based on responses from adults living in the greater Pittsburgh metropolitan area.

Scientific reasoning and critical thinking in social studies

Scientific reasoning and critical thinking in social studies

Fernando Rodriguez, in Psychology of Learning and Motivation8 Concluding Thoughts Good everyday scientific reasoning involves judging whether or not evidence is consistent with a claim or theory, or whether there are threats to validity in the evidence that render a claim invalid.

The problem is clear, but there is less consensus regarding potential solutions. One potential solution involves bridging the disconnect between how students are taught to interpret science in k and how people interpret science in reality.

However, the reality is that dispositional factors have a powerful influence on how people interpret scientific evidence, specifically on the tendency to think critically about evidence.

Thus science instruction as early as k should not only focus on scientific inquiry skills, but also critical thinking skills in the context of science evidence evaluation. Students can be taught to challenge evidence without losing trust in science as an enterprise.

They can be taught both to trust scientific authority in general and to take novel scientific findings with a grain of salt. If all students are taught to approach scientific evidence with an analytical eye, perhaps dispositional and contextual factors will eventually play a more limited role in determining whether people think critically about scientific evidence.

In a very preliminary study, we explored whether or not self-reported early life activities were associated with thinking dispositions. In addition to dispositional and contextual factors, knowledge about the scientific process—or the nature of science—also strongly predicts whether people critically evaluate scientific evidence.

This includes epistemic knowledge; for instance, understanding that novel findings are tentative, as well as knowledge about the research process and the many ways in which scientific studies can be flawed i. However, k education does not focus on nature of science issues as much as they probably should.

By focusing on control of variables and random assignment as key factors to consider in the context of evaluating evidence, it is possible that when a study does involve random assignment, individuals might assume that the study is of high quality even if other threats to validity are present.

In applied contexts, RCTs and even meta-analyses are often statistically sound and avoid threats to internal validity; the source of potential concern may be construct validity or external validity. Here, we consider two examples of studies reported in the media for which the subsequent possible policy impacts were quite high.

On 13th February,The Diane Rehm Show included a discussion of a meta-analysis of mammography that found that while use of routine mammograms increased the diagnosis of breast cancer, they did not reduce death from breast cancer.

Scientific reasoning and critical thinking in social studies

As experts began discussing the study, several possible threats to validity were identified, including that the longitudinal study followed women whose mammograms by necessity are less advanced than those with modern technology external validity. Attention or not to this problem may influence future policy decisions regarding mammogram use.

Critical Thinking and Social Studies

In another famously controversial example, Levitt and Dubner argued in their book Freakonomics that there was no benefit of booster seats for older children compared to having children in seat belts.

They based their conclusion on an analysis of crash data. Many in the transportation safety research community objected to their conclusions for several reasons Flannagan, personal communication, The study used as its sample a database that consisted only of crashes with one or more fatalities sampling bias, a threat to statistical validity.

Such accidents are unique because they tend to be very severe or have vulnerable passengers e. The potential serious consequences of the mammogram and car seat examples highlight not only the importance of evidence evaluation skills, but also that scientists have a responsibility to communicate their results with caution.Aug 21,  · Critical Thinking: The Development of an Essential Skill for Nursing Students.

Critical reasoning:The art and science of critical and creative thinking. Raingruber B, Haffer A. Philadelphia: F.A.

Davis; Using your head to land on your feet: A beginning nurse's guide to critical thinking. Keywords: Critical-thinking, ways to promote critical-thinking, social studies education, and NCSS journals.

Teaching critical-thinking has always been an important mission of social studies education, and thus a subject of considerable attention in the social studies literature. Chapter 6 Clinical Reasoning, Decisionmaking, and Action: Thinking Critically and Clinically.

Patricia Benner; sometimes even as a form of scientific reasoning. Critical thinking is inherent in making sound clinical reasoning.

18 Decisionmaking, and Action: Thinking Critically and Clinically - Patient Safety and Quality.

Critical Thinking Correlation Studies

Whereas critical thinking is thinking that utilizes the elements of reasoning, it is also thinking that meets high standards of quality, standards of quality that we want .

Scientific reasoning and critical thinking in social studies If, however, the students still do not understand, the teacher provides cues in the form of prompts, analogies, metaphors, or other forms of elaboration that help students refine their understanding of the reasoning process (herrmann ).

“Critical Thinking balances clarity, detail and a user-friendly approach for students with the kind of rigor and care instructors will welcome. As a thorough introduction to basic tools of logic, probability and scientific reasoning, this text is a winner.”.

Critical Thinking and Social Studies