The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny.
Kant on sexuality and objectification Immanuel Kant's views on sexual objectification have been particularly influential for contemporary feminist discussions on this topic. Kant thought that sexuality is extremely problematic when exercised outside the context of monogamous marriage, arguing that in such instances it leads to objectification.
Objectification, for Kant, involves the lowering of a person, a being with humanity, to the status of an object. Humanity, for Kant, is an individual's rational nature and capacity for rational choice. The characteristic feature of humanity is an individual's capacity for rationally setting and pursuing her own ends.
A being with humanity is capable of deciding what is valuable, and of finding ways to realise and promote this value. Humanity is what is special about human beings. It distinguishes them from animals and inanimate objects.
It is crucial, for Kant, that each person respects humanity in others, as well Philosophy from the female perspective humanity in their own person. Humanity must never be treated merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end Kant Kant is worried that when people exercise their sexuality outside the context of monogamous marriage, they treat humanity merely as a means for their sexual purposes.
The loved person loses what is special to her as a human being, her humanity, and is reduced to a thing, a mere sexual instrument. Kant's notion of objectification, therefore, focuses largely on instrumentality: The idea that within sexual relationships people are reduced to objects, that they lose their rational nature, is an extreme one.
Halwani rightly points out that this reduction to the status of an object rarely happens in sexual objectification.
In , philosophy professors Neven Sesardic and Rafael De Clercq published an article entitled "Women in Philosophy: Problems with the Discrimination Hypothesis." She is critical of the view that there is a specifically female perspective on logic and scientific truth and is critical of feminist epistemology. Ethics Chapter 9. STUDY. PLAY. Traditional moral philosophy has been favorable to women as evidenced by the views of Rousseau and Aristotle. False. For Baier, the tradition of rights has only worked against women and not for women. False. Ethics of care argues that there is a female moral perspective that contrasts sharply with the . The ethics of care perspective stands in stark ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA so happens that those writing in the feminine tradition have come to associate care and responsibility to others with a female-gendered approach to ethics and individual rights and justice with a male-gendered approach to ethics. Ethics and philosophy. related.
Therefore, even though the view that humanity is completely destroyed when people exercise their sexuality is an unappealing one, it is not unreasonable to think that, in some cases, sexual desire and exercise of sexuality can undermine our rationality.
Kant thought that in theory both men and women can be objectified, but he was well aware that in practice women are the most common victims of objectification. This is obvious in Kant's discussions of prostitution and concubinage. Exercise of sexuality within these morally problematic sexual contexts leads to the reduction of women prostitutes and concubines to men's objects of appetite.
Kant defines prostitution as the offer for profit of one's person for another's sexual gratification. A person, Kant holds, cannot allow others to use her body sexually in exchange for money without losing her humanity and becoming an object.
He is not entitled to sell a limb, not even one of his teeth.
Kant blames the prostitute for her objectification. He takes her to be responsible for sacrificing her humanity, in offering herself as an object for the satisfaction of the clients' sexual desires. The other relationship in which objectification is, for Kant, clearly present is concubinage.
According to Kant, concubinage is the non-commodified sexual relationship between a man and more than one woman the concubines.
Kant takes concubinage to be a purely sexual relationship in which all parties aim at the satisfaction of their sexual desires Kant Lectures on Ethics, The inequality that is involved in this relationship makes it problematic.
Since body and self are for Kant inseparable and together they constitute the person, in surrendering her body her sex exclusively to her male partner, the woman surrenders her whole person to the man, allowing him to possess it. The man, by contrast, who has more than one sexual partner, does not exclusively surrender himself to the woman, and so he does not allow her to possess his person.
The only relationship in which two people can exercise their sexuality without the fear of reducing themselves to objects is monogamous marriage. Monogamy is required to ensure that there is equality and reciprocity in the surrender and ownership of the two spouses' persons.
The spouses exclusively surrender their persons to one another, so neither of them is in danger of losing his or her person and becoming an object. This perfect equality and reciprocity between the spouses is described by Kant as follows: Furthermore, this mutual exchange of the two spouses' persons must, for Kant, be legally enforced.
He wants something external, the law, to guarantee this lifelong ownership of the two parties' persons in marriage. He argues that this legal obligation to surrender one's person to one's spouses makes marriage different from a monogamous relationship between two unmarried partners.
Pornography and objectification Like Kant, anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin take inequality to be tightly linked to objectification. In the eyes of both these feminists and Kant, there is the powerful objectifier on the one hand, and on the other hand there exists his powerless victim.
Due to their unequal power, the former objectifies the latter. Kant is concerned with inequality taking place within polygamous relationships.
MacKinnon and Dworkin, on the other hand, believe that inequality is a much more widespread and pervasive phenomenon. It covers all aspects of our society.
MacKinnon and Dworkin emphasise that we live in a world of gender inequality.Philosophy readings from a female perspective Recently I read the following stor y on What’s it like to be a woman in philosophy. The poster says her partner thought the mother/daughter relationship is not a topic of meaningful or worthy philosophical investigation.
Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews is an electronic, The Social and Political Philosophy of Mary Wollstonecraft, Oxford University Press , pp., $ (hbk), ISBN Wollstonecraft had denied or neglected the female perspective, the importance of otherness, in feminist political and social reasoning.
Philosophy of Sexuality. Among the many topics explored by the philosophy of sexuality are procreation, contraception, celibacy, marriage, adultery, casual sex.
Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. It can be roughly defined as the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an monstermanfilm.com this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm.
Feminism is said to be the movement to end women's oppression (hooks , 26). One possible way to understand ‘woman’ in this claim is to take it as a sex term: ‘woman’ picks out human females and being a human female depends on various biological and anatomical features (like genitalia).
PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification.