Reading and Writing in English Classes One of the many features of middle and high schools, and one that has significant instructional implications, is the fact that teachers and their adolescent students do not spend the entire day together.
Historical linguistics and History of English grammars Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representationsformal rules about language usage tend to appear also.
Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted, over time, as being correct.
Linguists tend to view prescriptive grammars as having little justification beyond their authors' aesthetic tastes, although style guides may give useful advice about standard language employment, based on descriptions of usage in contemporary writings of the same language.
English 6 writing and grammar work text definition prescriptions also form part of the explanation for variation in speech, particularly variation in the speech of an individual speaker an explanation, for example, for why some people say "I didn't do nothing", some say "I didn't do anything", and some say one or the other depending on social context.
The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learningthough the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, particularly as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive.
Constructed languages also called planned languages or conlangs are more common in the modern day than they used to be, although still extremely uncommon compared to natural languages.
Many have been designed to aid human communication for example, naturalistic Interlinguaschematic Esperantoand the highly logic-compatible artificial language Lojban. Each of these languages has its own grammar.
Syntax refers to the linguistic structure above the word level e. Morphology, by contrast, refers to structure at and below the word level e. Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages.
In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language.
Chinese and Afrikaansfor example, are highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context-dependent. Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over time.
Latinwhich is highly syntheticuses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax. Because Latin words are quite though not completely self-contained, an intelligible Latin sentence can be made from elements that are placed in a largely arbitrary order.
Latin has a complex affixation and simple syntax, while Chinese has the opposite. Education[ edit ] Prescriptive grammar is taught in primary and secondary school. The term " grammar school " historically refers to a school attached to a cathedral or monastery teaching Latin grammar to future priests and monks.
In its earliest form, "grammar school" referred to a school that taught students to read, scan, interpret, and declaim Greek and Latin poets including Homer, Virgil, Euripides, and others. These should not be confused with the related, albeit distinct, modern British grammar schools.
A standard language is a particular dialect of a language that is promoted above other dialects in writing, education, and broadly speaking in the public sphere; it contrasts with vernacular dialects, which may be the objects of study in descriptive grammar but which are rarely taught prescriptively.
The standardized " first language " taught in primary education may be subject to political controversy, because it may sometimes establish a standard defining nationality or ethnicity.
Recently, efforts have begun to update grammar instruction in primary and secondary education. The primary focus has been to prevent the use of outdated prescriptive rules in favour of more accurate descriptive ones and to change perceptions about relative "correctness" of standard forms in comparison to non-standard dialects.
The pre-eminence of Parisian French has reigned largely unchallenged throughout the history of modern French literature. Standard Italian is not based on the speech of the capital, Rome, but on the speech of Florence because of the influence Florentines had on early Italian literature.
Portuguese has, for now, two official standards, respectively Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese. The Serbian language is divided in a similar way; Serbia and the Republika Srpska use their own separate standards. The existence of a third standard is a matter of controversy, some consider Montenegrin as a separate language, and some think it is merely another variety of Serbian.
Each Norwegian municipality can declare one of the two its official language, or it can remain "language neutral".
Nynorsk is endorsed by a minority of 27 percent of the municipalities. The main language used in primary schools normally follows the official language of its municipality and is decided by referendum within the local school district.
Standard German emerged from the standardized chancellery use of High German in the 16th and 17th centuries.Definition of Expository Writing.
Expository writing is writing that seeks to explain, illuminate or 'expose' (which is where the word 'expository' comes from).
This type of writing can include. 5 a: the words of something (such as a poem) set to music. b: matter chiefly in the form of words or symbols that is treated as data for processing by computerized equipment text-editing software. A glossary of English grammar and linguistic terms; key points quickly clarified by example.
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The word grammar comes from Greek, meaning "craft of letters," which is an apt description. In any language, grammar is: the systematic study and description of a language. (Compare with usage.); a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language.; Without grammar, a language wouldn't work, because people couldn't communicate effectively.
A glossary of English grammar and linguistic terms; key points quickly clarified by example.