Karlsen comments that Hibbens had been excommunicated from the Boston church sixteen years before her witchcraft trial but was not formally charged until her neighbors accused her of maleficium killing cattle and so forth as well as evil actions such as knowing that other people were talking about her.
The Social Origin Boyer-nissenbaum thesis Witchcraft. Harvard University Press, Too frequently the true happenings of the Salem Witch Trials are mythicized, distorted to the point where one can no longer separate fact from fiction.
It is difficult to rely on the opinions of others for accurate depictions of what really occurred at that time for many reasons.
Boyer-nissenbaum thesis in witchcraft has escalated over the past few decades and new books are often being written. The trouble with many of these books, in the past and recently, is that many are not written from a historical perspective. The authors write about what will interest the reader, thus distorting the events and leading the Boyer-nissenbaum thesis to believe a tale of fiction, based on a grain of truth.
The authors of this book, Paul Boyer and Stephan Nissenbaum are both associate professors of history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Both have authored several works dealing with Early American History as well as teaming up to write Salem-Village Witchcraft: Therefore, they are qualified in their field of writing.
This is also true with primary sources, such as narrations. This is the difference between these hybrid books of truth and fiction and that of Salem Possessed. Salem Possessed harnesses the extensive history of Salem Village, using primary sources that were both published and unpublished to explain the reasoning for the accusations, arrests and eventually the Witch Trials.
The book is easy to understand and read, provided the reader has somewhat of a background in the Witch Trials or about witchcraft and is capable of reading at different levels ranging from the high school level to the professional. The book is well-organized in an unexpected way. The preface explains why the authors decided to write the book.
The two professors were offering a course at their college called "New Approaches to the Study of History. Thus, they decided to compose a book based on these never-before-published sources.
Next, the reader is thrown right into the Witch Trial scenario in the prologue. The actual chapters of the book focus on unraveling the mystery of why the trials went on for so long and what provoked it to happen in Salem Village. Salem Possessed discusses many interesting topics, which provoke the reader to rethink his thoughts about the Salem happenings.
They include the patterns of accusation focusing on status and geography, the quest for community and identity and the role of religion and ministers. The authors present findings from the records of the original documents of the Salem Witch Trials.
The authors cite that the first three women, Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were seen as "deviants," or "outcasts" in their community. Good was a pauper, constantly begging for food and lodging; Osborne, though not poor, was an old bedridden woman; Tituba was a West Indian slave This pattern, however, did not hold out for long.
Soon thereafter, wealthy merchants, the wife of the governor and the best-known men in New England joined the list of the accused. None of these persons of "quality," however, were brought to trial, much less executed Another interesting finding was that the accusations and executions formed an intense pattern geographically.
Twelve witches were either residents of the Village or persons who lived just outside the border. Of all the indictments which followed the initial twelve, only fifteen were directed against people of the immediate vicinity of Salem Village.
The other victims came from practically every town in Essex County Even more shocking than the patterns of accusations, was the inclusion of spectral evidence. The "accusers," many of which were the "afflicted girls" to whom the book refers to throughout the work, did not even know the persons they were accusing.
In fact, the afflicted girls could not even pick out the accused without whispers from other people telling them who was who So, in many, if not most, of the cases the accusers and the accused were unacquainted. There were fourteen accused witches who lived within the boundaries of Salem Village.
Twelve of these accused lived in the eastern side of the village. Of the thirty-two adult villagers who testified against the accused, only two lived in the eastern side of the village. In other words, the accusers and the accused lived on opposite sides of the village.
There were also twenty-nine villagers who spoke out publicly in defense of the accused, twenty-four of which lived on the eastern side, the same side of the accused. Those who defended the accused were generally neighbors who interacted with them on a daily basis, while those who accused them did not.
Salem Village did not have a legal existence apart from Salem Town, yet they were still taxed and still expected to take shifts on the nightly watch in Salem Town.
Salem Village was referred to as "Salem Farms" and its inhabitants merely "the Farmers.Boyer and Nissenbaum's Salem Possessed is the basic source for Salem Village factionalism. Their edited volume, Salem-Village Witchcraft, contains essential documents relating to these divisions.
Also useful are Gragg, . Boyer and nissenbaum. An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie The JSTOR site requires that your browser allows JSTOR (to set and modify cookies.
May 21, · Boyer and nissenbaum thesis >>> click to order essay Surfactant synthesis Free essays on argumentative essay are we too dependent on computers argumentative essays 1: argumentative essay topics and points outline 1.
Then you will report to the class on how the theories of Salem: (Social Strain Gauge, Moral Panic, Social Pyramid Structure, the Boyer & Nissenbaum Thesis, PTSD & Indian Wars, Gender Theories/Burning Times, Judicial Structure, and Ergotism poisoning) affect and/or explain your character and your specific cohort’s actions in The Salem Witchcraft Papers Verbatim Transcriptions of the Court Records In three volumes.
Edited by Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum Da Capo Press: New York, This review states that this sensitive, intelligent, and well-written book will certainly revive interest in the terrible happenings at Salem.
He goes on to say that this .