History of the Greek alphabet Greek alphabet on an ancient black figure vessel.
In cursive handwriting, the square-C form developed further into a rounded form resembling a "C" found in papyrus manuscripts ason coins sometimes as.
It then developed a downward tail at the endand finally adopted a shape like a Latin "s"  These cursive forms are also found in stone inscriptions in late antiquity. Both closed and open forms were subsequently used without distinction both for the ligature and for the numeral.
The ligature took on the name of "stigma" or "sti", and the name stigma is today applied to it both in its textual and in the numeral function.
In normal text, this ligature together with numerous others continued to be used widely until the early nineteenth century, following the style of earlier minuscule handwriting, but ligatures then gradually dropped out of use. The stigma ligature was among those that survived longest, but it too became obsolete in print after the midth century.
Distinct uppercase versions were occasionally used in the 19th century. Several different shapes of uppercase stigma can be found, with the lower end either styled as a small curved S-like hookor as a straight stem, the latter either with a serif or without one.
An alternative uppercase stylization in some twentieth-century fonts isvisually a ligature of Roman-style uppercase C and T. Glyph confusion Example of a nineteenth-century font using S-shaped capital Stigma first row and G-shaped capital Koppa second row.
Example of a nineteenth-century font using turned-lamedh-shaped capital Koppa and G-shaped capital Stigma. Stigma and Koppa in modern fonts. In ancient papyri, the cursive C-shaped form of numeric digamma is often indistinguishable from the C-shaped "lunate" form that was then the common form of sigma.
If the two characters are distinguished in print, the top loop of stigma tends to be somewhat larger and to extend farther to the right than that of final sigma.
The two characters are, however, always distinguishable from the context in modern usage, both in numeric notation and in text: Yet another case of glyph confusion exists in the printed uppercase forms, this time between stigma and the other numeral, koppa In ancient and medieval handwriting, koppa developed from through.Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two.
Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs.. For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get .
Acrophonic numeral signs use the first letter of certain numbers and currency values to stand for the whole: pi stands for πέντε, delta for δέκα, heta for ἑκατόν, and so on. How and When Was the Torah Written?
By Tzvi Freeman. Question: Give me the handle on this Sinai thing. It is a simple matter to demonstrate where phonetic ("acrophonic") writing developed, but how early is another matter.
3. The way we write, researchers find, has a major impact on how we think. Cultures without literacy do not distinguish. My Surnames. COGNOMI ITALIANI "L": © Digamma, waw, or wau (uppercase: Ϝ, lowercase: ϝ, numeral: ϛ) is an archaic letter of the Greek monstermanfilm.com originally stood for the sound /w/ but it has principally remained in use as a Greek numeral for monstermanfilm.coms it was originally called waw or wau, its most common appellation in classical Greek is digamma; as a numeral, it was called episēmon during the Byzantine era and is now known as.
Late 19th century. From acro- + -phony. Compare earlier acrophonetic, acrophonic.