Early life[ edit ] Sophia was the third surviving daughter of Tsar Alexis by his first wife, Maria Miloslavskaya. At the previous change of ruler inSophia may have acted in the interest of her brother, Feodor, as various rumours exist of her pleading then with her father, the dying Tsar Alexis, not to proclaim Peter his heir. His mental ability developed quite nicely over time, however, as he was taught by Simeon Polotsky.
From the early 9th century, the territory of the country which is today known as The Netherlands was part of Frisia, which covered the whole coastal area from southern Denmark in the east to Flanders in the west. Under the partition of imperial territories agreed at Thionville inFrisia was assigned to Charles, eldest son of Emperor Charles I before reverting to the emperor on his son's early death in Afterthe territory of the future Netherlands became the northernmost part of the kingdom of Lotharingia, created under the treaty of Verdun which finally settled the lengthy disputes between the sons of Emperor Louis I.
The county of Holland was the western part of The Netherlands, stretching approximately from the island of Texel in the north to Dordrecht in the south. The county is first referred to by the name "Holland" in a charter dated although the name "Holtlant" wood-landreferring to a place in the area of Leiden, appears once in a 9th century charter which lists the property of St Maarten's church .
The name "Holland" is now frequently used to refer to the whole nation of The Netherlands, but this is incorrect, similar to saying "England" when one wishes to refer to "Great Britain". The present document sets out the dukes and counts of Frisia, the counts of Holland, and the counts of the adjacent counties which were eventually incorporated into The Netherlands.
The earliest recorded duke of Frisia was Radbod. Frisia marked the northern boundary of the kingdom of Austrasia, although it is unclear how much of the territory was effectively controlled by the Merovingian Frankish kings.
The pacification process must have been slow and subject to setbacks. The Continuator of Fredegar records that Grimoald was murdered by a Frisian inand that Charles "Martel" "conquered" presumably meaning reconquered the territory in .
Further revolts in Frisia against the Franks are recorded in the s . Reuter suggests that the local Frisian nobility was absorbed only to a limited extent into the Frankish ruling elite, contrasting the situation in Frisia with that of Saxony .
Ecclesiastically, Frisia fell within the jurisdiction of the bishopric of Utrecht, whose earliest bishop is recorded in . Chapter 1 of this document sets out what is known about the early dukes of Frisia and about early Frisian counts who were probably descended from these dukes.
Frisia's marshy terrain made it relatively inaccessible by land. However, it was subject to repeated Viking attacks from the sea from the early 9th century, as reported in numerous contemporary sources.
The first such confrontation is recorded in in the Royal Frankish Annals, which report that Godefrid King of the Danes fought the Frisians . The Annales Fuldenses refer to a devastating Viking attack on Dorestad and the island of Walcheren in . It is clear that the Vikings did not just see Frisia as an attractive target for raids.
The area constituted a convenient staging post from which to launch raids on Frankish territory further to the south.
The Annales Fuldenses record the baptism of "Herioldus cum uxore et magna Danorum multitudine" at Mainz an important symbolic gesture in the process of integration.
It is clear that the Carolingian Frankish kings of Lotharingia did not relinquish their claim to jurisdiction over Frisia despite Viking encroachment, as shown by the Annales Bertiniani which record that Emperor Lothaire I gave Frisia to his son the future King Lothaire II in .
Godefrid effectively became Duke of Frisia, under imperial suzerainty. After Godefrid was killed inthe emperor appointed the Saxon Graf Eberhard as duke and, after Eberhard was murdered inhis brother Meginhard was appointed.
No later mention of this imperially created Frisian duchy has been found in the primary sources so far consulted and it is assumed that it lapsed as separate counties developed in Frisia.
Meginhard is probably identified with the early 9th century Graaf van Hamaland of the same name. It is likely that descendants of the early Danish invaders settled permanently in Frisia and integrated into the local aristocracy. The name "Dirk", used by seven counts of Holland, also suggests a Saxon connection in its Latin form "Theodericus", a name which was closely connected with the Saxon paternal ancestors of Heinrich I King of Germany.
The early development of the Frisian pagi and counties is obscure. The Divisio Imperii of Jun assigns, among other lands, "ducatum Fresica usque Mosam…comitatum Hamarlant, comitatum Batavorum, comitatum Testrabenticum, Dorestado" to the kingdom of Italy equivalent to the kingdom which would later be called Lotharingia .
The text implies that the four named counties were vassals of the duchy of Frisia. However, no dukes of Frisia have been identified at that time in the primary sources so far consulted, and few contemporary references have been found to local counts. After this date, northern Lotharingia remained under East Frankish suzerainty.
Although the West Frankish kingdom disputed East Frankish superiority in the whole of Lotharingia, its incursions and temporary acquisitions never reached as far north as The Netherlands. A detailed study of the pagi located within the territory of what is now The Netherlands was carried out by Van den Bergh in the midth century .
His study is extensive but may not be exhaustive:brunswick v updated 24 may return to index. table of contents.
introduction.. chapter 1. grafen von braunschweig. chapter 2. herzogen von braunschweig. a.
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